As a common traction equipment in the modern industrial production process, winches are widely used in mines, ports, buildings, oceans, factories and many other fields. The mining winch is the most commonly used transport equipment for coal mines, and its performance is directly related to the production efficiency of mines and the life safety of workers. However, the existing mining winch has a safety hazard during use; the pneumatic winch has a relatively high safety factor, but the pulling speed is relatively slow. This article designed and researched a more practical pneumatic winch, with good remote control performance. It can directly use the gas source of the existing air pressure self-rescue system in the mine, and has good economic benefits and development prospects. The thesis studies and analyzes the characteristics of the working condition of the pneumatic winch, defines its design requirements, proposes the overall design of the pneumatic winch, and determines the mechanical transmission scheme and the pneumatic system scheme. Referring to the existing winch, the design parameters of the pneumatic winch were formulated, and the design and calibration of the main mechanical parts of the drum and the planetary gear drive system of the pneumatic winch were carried out according to the corresponding design principles. The finite element analysis of the drum structure of the pneumatic winch was carried out by ANSYS software. The stress deformation cloud diagram was obtained. The distribution law of the stress deformation of the drum along the axial direction was analyzed. The analysis results verified that the drum structure design was reasonable. The virtual prototype of the winch planetary gear transmission system was established using ADAMS software. Kinematics simulation results show that the planetary gear transmission system meets the requirements of the pneumatic winch transmission. According to the performance requirements of pneumatic winches, the pneumatic system was designed in detail. The simplified model of the pneumatic system was established by AMESim software. The results of aerodynamic simulation showed that the aerodynamic system design was reasonable.